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These are not to be confused and are different games entirely. For more information about rummy card games, click here. The game is suited for anywhere between 3 and 5 players, although 4 is optimal.
Players may add more decks if they wish to play with more than 5 people, however, this tends to make the game less interesting.
The first dealer is chosen at random by which ever mechanism players prefer. After, the dealer deals each player a total of 10 cards, dealt in batches or 3, 3, 3, and then 1 card.
The city was one of five treaty ports forced open to foreign trade after the First Opium War. The city then flourished, becoming a primary commercial and financial hub of the Asia-Pacific region in the s.
After the war, with the CPC takeover of mainland China in , trade was limited to other socialist countries and the city's global influence declined.
In the s, economic reforms introduced by Deng Xiaoping resulted in an intense redevelopment of the city, especially the Pudong New Area, aiding the return of finance and foreign investment.
The city has since re-emerged as a hub for international trade and finance; it is the home of the Shanghai Stock Exchange , one of the largest stock exchanges in the world by market capitalization and the Shanghai Free-Trade Zone , the first free-trade zone in China.
It has the third-highest number of billionaires of any city in the world and highly ranked institutions including Fudan University , Shanghai Jiao Tong University , Tongji University , and East China Normal University.
Shanghai has been described as the "showpiece" of the booming economy of China. Featuring several architecture styles such as Art Deco and shikumen , the city is renowned for its Lujiazui skyline , museums and historic buildings—including the City God Temple , Yu Garden , the China Pavilion and buildings along the Bund.
Shanghai is also known for its sugary cuisine , distinctive dialect and vibrant international flair. The earliest occurrence of this name dates from the 11th-century Song dynasty , when there was already a river confluence and a town with this name in the area.
How the name should be understood has been disputed, but Chinese historians have concluded that during the Tang dynasty , the area of modern-day Shanghai was under the sea level, so the land appeared to be literally "on the sea".
The first five-star hotel in the city was named after Huating. The western part of modern-day Shanghai was inhabited years ago. He ordered the excavation of the Huangpu River.
Established in the fifth year of the Tang Tianbao era , it developed into what historically called a "giant town of the Southeast", with thirteen temples and seven pagodas.
Mi Fu , a scholar and artist of the Song dynasty, served as its mayor. The port experienced thriving trade with provinces along the Yangtze and the Chinese coast, as well as with foreign countries such as Japan and Silla.
By the end of the Song dynasty, the center of trading had moved downstream of the Wusong River to Shanghai. Two important events helped promote Shanghai's developments in the Ming dynasty.
A city wall was built for the first time in to protect the town from raids by Japanese pirates. This honor was usually reserved for prefectural capitals and not normally given to a mere county seat such as Shanghai.
Scholars have theorized that this likely reflected the town's economic importance, as opposed to its low political status. As a result of these two critical decisions, Shanghai became the major trade port for all of the lower Yangtze region by , despite still being at the lowest administrative level in the political hierarchy.
In the 19th century, international attention to Shanghai grew due to European recognition of its economic and trade potential at the Yangtze.
During the First Opium War — , British forces occupied the city. Britain, France, and the United States all carved out outside the walled city of Shanghai, which was still ruled by the Chinese.
Between and , the Taiping rebels twice attacked Shanghai and destroyed the city's eastern and southern suburbs, but failed to take the city.
The French opted out of the Shanghai Municipal Council and maintained its own concession to the south and southwest.
Japan built the first factories in Shanghai, which was soon copied by other foreign powers. All this international activity gave Shanghai the nickname "the Great Athens of China".
The golden age of Shanghai began with its elevation to municipality on 7 July The plan included a public museum, library, sports stadium, and city hall, which were partially constructed before being interrupted by the Japanese invasion.
The city flourished, becoming a primary commercial and financial hub of the Asia-Pacific region in the s. By , Shanghai had become the world's fifth largest city and home to 70, foreigners.
The Bund in the late s seen from the French Concession. Nanking Road modern-day East Nanjing Road in the s. Shanghai Park Hotel was the tallest building in Asia for decades.
On 28 January , Japanese forces invaded Shanghai while the Chinese resisted. More than 10, shops and hundreds of factories and public buildings  were destroyed, leaving Zhabei district ruined.
About 18, civilians were either killed, injured, or declared missing. People who stayed in the occupied city suffered on a daily basis, experiencing hunger, oppression, or death.
A side-effect of the Japanese invasion of Shanghai was the Shanghai Ghetto. They traveled from Keidan , Lithuania across Russia by railroad to the Vladivostok from where they traveled by ship to Kobe, Japan.
However, the Jewish refugees' stay in Kobe was short as the Japanese government transferred them to Shanghai by November Other Jewish refugees found haven in Shanghai, not through Sugihara, but came on ships from Italy.
The refugees from Europe were interned into a cramped ghetto in the Hongkou District,  and after the Japanese invasion of Pearl Harbor, even the Iraqi Jews who had been living in Shanghai from before the outbreak of WWII were interned.
Among the refugees in the Shanghai Ghetto was the Mirrer Yeshiva , including its students and faculty.
On 3 September , the Chinese Army liberated the Ghetto and most of the Jews left over the next few years. By , there were only one hundred Jews remaining in Shanghai.
Under the new People's Republic of China PRC , Shanghai was one of only three municipalities not merged into neighboring provinces the others being Beijing and Tianjin.
After the war, Shanghai's economy was restored—from to , the city's agricultural and industrial output increased by As the industrial center of China with the most skilled industrial workers, Shanghai became a center for radical leftism during the s and s.
The radical leftist Jiang Qing and her three allies, together the Gang of Four , were based in the city. About 11, people were unjustly persecuted to death.
Yet, even during the most tumultuous times of the revolution, Shanghai was able to maintain economic production with positive annual growth rate.
Since , Shanghai has been a comparatively heavy contributor of tax revenue to the central government; in , the city's contribution in tax revenue was greater than investment received in the past 33 years combined.
In , Deng Xiaoping finally permitted Shanghai to initiate economic reforms, which reintroduced foreign capital to the city and developed the Pudong district, resulting in the birth of Lujiazui.
The land is formed by the Yangtze's natural deposition and modern land reclamation projects. As such, it has sandy soil , and skyscrapers are to be built with deep concrete piles to avoid sinking into the soft ground.
It is roughly equidistant from Beijing and Guangzhou , bordering the East China Sea to the east, Zhejiang to the south, and Jiangsu to the west and north.
Shanghai is located on an alluvial plain. As such, the vast majority of its 6, Downtown Shanghai is bisected by the Huangpu River, a man-made tributary of the Yangtze created by order of Lord Chunshen during the Warring States period.
The central financial district, Lujiazui, has been established on the east bank of the Huangpu Pudong. Along Shanghai's eastern shore, the destruction of local wetlands due to the construction of Pudong International Airport has been partially offset by the protection and expansion of a nearby shoal, Jiuduansha , as a nature preserve.
Shanghai has a humid subtropical climate Köppen Cfa , with an average annual temperature of Winters are chilly and damp—northwesterly winds from Siberia can cause nighttime temperatures to drop below freezing.
Each year, there are an average of 6. On average, 8. In summer and the beginning of autumn, the city is susceptible to typhoons. The most pleasant seasons are generally spring, although changeable and often rainy, and autumn, which is usually sunny and dry.
See or edit raw graph data. Shanghai has a rich collection of buildings and structures of various architectural styles.
Many areas in the former foreign concessions are also well-preserved, the most notable being the French Concession. Despite rampant redevelopment, the Old City still retains some traditional architecture and designs, such as the Yu Garden , an elaborate Jiangnan style garden.
As a result of its construction boom during the s and s, Shanghai has among the most Art Deco buildings in the world.
The Bund has been revitalized several times. The first was in , with a new promenade by the Dutch architect Paulus Snoeren. The house is similar to western-style terrace houses or townhouses , but distinguishes by the tall, heavy brick wall and archway in front of each house.
The shikumen is a cultural blend of elements found in Western architecture with traditional Jiangnan Chinese architecture and social behavior.
Vegetation can be grown in the courtyard, and it can also allow for sunlight and ventilation to the rooms. Some of Shanghai's buildings feature Soviet neoclassical architecture or Stalinist architecture , though the city has fewer such structures than Beijing.
These buildings were mostly erected between the founding of the People's Republic in and the Sino-Soviet Split in the late s.
During this time period, large numbers of Soviet experts, including architects, poured into China to aid the country in the construction of a communist state.
An example of Soviet neoclassical architecture in Shanghai is the modern-day Shanghai Exhibition Center. Shanghai—Lujiazui in particular—has numerous skyscrapers , making it the fifth city in the world with the most skyscrapers.
The Shanghai Grand Theater. The Shanghai Exhibition Center , an example of Stalinist architecture. The Oriental Pearl Tower at night. Like virtually all governing institutions in mainland China , Shanghai has a parallel party-government system,  in which the Party Committee Secretary , officially termed the Communist Party of China Shanghai Municipal Committee Secretary, outranks the Mayor.
Political power in Shanghai has frequently been a stepping stone to higher positions in the central government. Officials with ties to the Shanghai administration collectively form a powerful faction in the central government known as the Shanghai Clique , which has often been viewed to compete against the rival Youth League Faction over personnel appointments and policy decisions.
Shanghai is one of the four municipalities under the direct administration of the Government of the People's Republic of China ,  and is divided into 16 county-level districts.
Although every district has its own urban core, the city hall and major administrative units are located in Huangpu District, which also serves as a commercial area, including the famous Nanjing Road.
Many universities in Shanghai are located in residential areas in Yangpu District and Putuo District.
Seven of the districts govern Puxi lit. Pudong lit. Seven of the districts govern suburbs, satellite towns, and rural areas farther away from the urban core: Baoshan, [j] Minhang , [k] Jiading, [l] Jinshan, [m] Songjiang, [n] Qingpu, [o] and Fengxian.
Chongming District comprises the islands of Changxing and Hengsha and most—but not all [q] —of Chongming Island. The former district of Nanhui was absorbed into Pudong District in In , Luwan District merged with Huangpu District.
As of [update] , these county-level divisions are further divided into the following township-level divisions : towns , 2 townships , and 99 subdistricts.
Those are in turn divided into the following village-level divisions : 3, neighborhood committees and 1, village committees. Shanghai was the largest and most prosperous city in East Asia during the s, and its rapid redevelopment began in the s.
The zone introduced a number of pilot reforms designed to incentivize foreign investment. In April , The Banker reported that Shanghai "has attracted the highest volumes of financial sector foreign direct investment in the Asia-Pacific region in the 12 months to the end of January ".
As one of the main industrial centers of China, Shanghai plays a key role in domestic manufacturing and heavy industry. Tourism is a major industry of Shanghai.
In , the number of domestic tourists increased by 7. The conference and meeting sector is also growing. Because the zone is not technically considered Chinese territory for tax purposes, commodities entering the zone are exempt from duty and customs clearance.
As of [update] , Shanghai had a total population of 24,,, including 14,, According to the Shanghai Municipal Statistics Bureau, about , residents in Shanghai are foreigners, including 28, Japanese, 21, Americans and, 20, Koreans.
Shanghai has a life expectancy of This has also caused the city to experience population aging —in , Due to its cosmopolitan history, Shanghai has a blend of religious heritage; religious buildings and institutions are scattered around the city.
According to a survey, only The remaining Buddhism, in its Chinese varieties , has had a presence in Shanghai since the Three Kingdoms period, during which the Longhua Temple —the largest temple in Shanghai—and the Jing'an Temple were founded.
Catholicism was brought into Shanghai in by Italian missionary Lazzaro Cattaneo. Ignatius Cathedral in Xujiahui—the largest Catholic church in the city,  the St.
They lived in a designated area called the Shanghai Ghetto and formed a community centered on the Ohel Moishe Synagogue, which is now the Shanghai Jewish Refugees Museum.
Islam came into Shanghai during the Yuan dynasty. Shanghai's Muslim population increased in the 19th and early 20th centuries when the city was a treaty port , during which time many mosques—including the Xiaotaoyuan Mosque , the Huxi Mosque , and the Pudong Mosque —were built.
The vernacular language spoken in the city is Shanghainese, a dialect of the Taihu Wu subgroup of the Wu Chinese family.
This is different from the official Chinese dialect, Mandarin , which is mutually unintelligible with Wu Chinese. At the time, most of the city's residents were immigrants from the two adjacent provinces, Jiangsu and Zhejiang, so Shanghainese was mostly a hybrid between Southern Jiangsu and Ningbo dialects.
After , Putonghua has also had a great impact on Shanghainese as a result of being rigorously promoted by the government.
They often cannot speak the local language and therefore use Putonghua as a lingua franca. Because Putonghua and English were more favored, Shanghainese began to decline, and fluency among young speakers weakened.
In recent years, there have been movements within the city to promote the local language and protect it from fading out.
Shanghai is an international center of research and development and is ranked 5th globally and 2nd in the whole Asia and the Pacific after Beijing by scientific research, as tracked by the Nature Index.
By the end of , Shanghai had 64 universities and colleges, secondary schools, primary schools, and 31 special schools. Louis in which has since consistently been ranked as one of the best in the world.
In Shanghai, the nine years of compulsory education —including five years of primary education and four years of junior secondary education—are free, with a gross enrollment ratio of over Shanghai has an extensive public transportation system comprising metros, buses, ferries, and taxis, all of which can be accessed using a Shanghai Public Transport Card.
Shanghai's rapid transit system, the Shanghai Metro , incorporates both subway and light metro lines and extends to every core urban district as well as neighboring suburban districts.
As of [update] , there are 17 metro lines excluding the Shanghai maglev train and Jinshan Railway , stations , and With the first tram line been in service in , trams were once popular in Shanghai in the early 20th century.
Since the s, many tram lines were either dismantled or replaced by trolleybus or motorbus lines;  the last tram line was demolished in Getting your online game Enjoy better graphics and more levels.
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It may sound simple, but this classic form of solotaire concentration requires plenty of forethought and skill to master.
A special American version is also included for those who can't distinguish the difference between Chinese characters. Shanghai was almost a disaster, until the designers put in a letters and numbers mode that is infinitely more enjoyable and a lot easier on the eyes.
This is another, in what appears to be an upcoming trend, of GameBoy puzzlers, but it's a good mind-bender for those up to the challenge.
Some games are tough translations and this is one of them. The game is dry, slow, and not challenging.
There's no excitement and nothing to keep you going after the first puzzle. Shanghai is a good puzzle game for those who like brain teasers.
If you are familiar with the home or computer versions then you know what you're up against. Extra settings and thousands of puzzles make this a very good version of Shanghai on the go!
GameBoy Shanghai is a pretty good version of the oriental solotaire game, but I have a real problem with the size of the tiles. In the end, however, all this is is another puzzler.